Animals are a great subject to draw, spanning a tremendous amount of variety of forms, poses, textures and colours. While you're at home, your pets are a readily available, if not entirely cooperative model, and we all have access to film and photography of animals online. For this week's Drawing From Home project we're going to look at some general tips for drawing a live subject, and then have a little look at some of the broad ideas behind drawing animals.
(Franz Marc – 'Lying Cat' )
If you've ever tried to draw your pets, you will often find that they very rarely sit and pose for you. Here is list of tactics to capture them on paper!
(Edward Hopper – 'Cat Studies')
It can be difficult to make a sustained study of a live animal, as they eventually move away or do something different. This means you may need to take photos. I recommend drawing from life as much as possible, as it will make you more familiar with the three dimensional forms, and will help you capture a better sense of liveliness from photographic reference.
Although animals seem vastly different to us, most mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians have the same body plan as us, morphed into different shapes. These general tips will get you started, without having to learn the average proportions of every creature!
(Differences between simplified skeletons of humans, mammals and birds)
The spine is the core of the figure, and this is no different for animals. The human spine bends in different directions to an animal's; quadruped spines arch at the neck and bow at the ribcage, so the ribcage and skull hang off the spine.
Another important difference is the shoulders. Many mammals (there are exceptions) have the shoulder blades at the side of the ribcage. It is worth keeping this in mind as you build up the rest of the body. One approach that works well is to segment the body into three sections: forelimbs, torso and hind-limbs.
(Segmentation helps us articulate limbs and maintain proportion)
In general, it helps to keep in mind the form and volumes of the animal you are drawing. Fur (or scale!) direction is also really important for describing the 3D forms of an animal, so keep an eye out for this.
Most animals have a snout that protrudes more than our nose, and a much smaller brain case. It is usually a good idea to block in the general shape first, then start to place features.
Whilst no single set of average proportions apply to all animals, there are still common patterns we can use to help us make judgements of scale. Like humans, animals have a line of symmetry down their centre (blue). This is useful for checking ears, eyes and nostrils are parallel and line up. As you place the features, find a line (red) that reaches from the nostril, alongside the eye to the ear. This works for a lot of animals, and otherwise is still a useful comparative measurement. For many mammals, it can help to use an arc (green) to get the angle of the ears relative to each other.
This week your challenge is to practice drawing an animal from life. (If you don't have any pets, you can still use film, or window wildlife.) Keep the above tips in mind as you draw, but don't worry if you end up with some incomplete drawings either.
(These sketchbook drawings were made from life)
1. Start with the spine, and block in some rough forms for the head, torso and limbs. Work the whole body at once; if your pet moves, you have the base to work on.
2. Build up larger shapes, looking for more individualistic features like ears, face shape and fur shape.
3. Start to find contour lines. Remember, fur is soft, so look for broken and fuzzy lines. Contour is key to showing textures.
4. Start to lay in tones and details. Once you have a good foundation, you can continue as long as you can manage.
This is the forth of our weekly 'Drawing From Home' blog posts, commissioned during coronavirus lockdown to help you draw more at home. Please do share your drawings with us, as we would love to see what everyone is up! Just tag us with @Draw_Brighton on social media or use the #DrawingFromHome #DrawBrighton hastags.